Keynote Speaker: Suzanne Rowland
Dr Suzanne Rowland (University of Brighton) is a fashion and design historian specialising in histories of fashion design and manufacturing. Her AHRC/Design Star funded PhD investigated the design and wholesale manufacturing of women’s fashionable blouses during the 1910s using network theories, object-focused research, and storytelling. She has a background as a costume maker in film and theatre and used these experiences to write two books that recreate everyday dress and accessories from museum collections: Making Edwardian Costumes for Women (2016) and Making Vintage 1920s Costumes for Women (2017). She has also published on tennis dress and dress in museum collections.
Women’s work is camouflaged: ‘We didn’t think it important’ said the women who had worked in the textile industry in St Ives, Cornwall, from the 1920s to the 1970s.
Now, at a time of fast fashion and climate change, with almost no home-grown industry, I have joined a group of women from West Cornwall, working in museums, galleries, libraries and archives – including historians and makers – under the banner of Crysede Collective. The Collective has recently been established to celebrate the extraordinary legacy of the Crysede Silk factory; established in Newlyn (1918); based in St Ives (1926 to 1939), and then in Hayle (1947-1953).
During its short existence, Crysede Silks made fabulous silk clothes for a monied international clientele using the unique hand-blocked printed designs of artist Alec Walker. Dresses and samples of material are still in existence throughout the country, in both public and private collections. And Crysede provided a lasting skill in fine dressmaking for young local working-class women, some of whom, under normal circumstances, would have been employed in the fishing industry.
The collaborative expertise of the Collective will continue to research the processes of textile production in the area, and bring its results to local communities who are unaware of this extraordinary heritage – through exhibitions, workshops, interviews and discussions.
Weaving together the legacy of the beautiful clothes, the expertise of the historians and researchers, and the memories of employees, Crysede Collective will also encourage and support a new generation of artists and makers locally to celebrate this home-based industry; in order that past strengths might lead to a new approach towards textile design and making in the twenty-first century.
This paper, therefore, discusses the history that inspired the project, the current work of the Collective, and potential futures for textile production in Cornwall.
Janet Axten is a researcher, writer and lecturer specialising in the history of St Ives area and women in the textile industry in West Cornwall from the thirteenth century to the present day. Her interest in Crysede Silks arose from working as personal assistant to Patrick Heron, son of Tom Heron, Managing Director of Crysede from 1925 until 1929. She is now part of the newly formed group ‘Crysede Collective’, which is celebrating and researching the working processes of the company and the place of women within it, to a wider audience.
First generation women artisans and livelihood opportunities through handmade crafts practices.
(The reclaiming of traditional techniques for modern markets)
The 108knots initiative is dedicated to promoting systemic change towards dignified livelihood opportunities for the first generation of rural and urban women artisans. By focusing on Macrame and Handwoven Banana fiber knotting and weaving practices, the initiative aims to create a women-led alternative and regenerative economy.
In addition to empowering women and youth as a collective force within the sector, 108knots is working towards creating a fair supply of sustainable raw materials and developing an economic supply chain for Macrame and Weaving practices. The initiative also aims to pass on knowledge and skills to younger women and future generations, creating a livelihood model for their future sustenance through handmade craft practices.
In India, 40% of the population in lower-income groups are vulnerable to extreme poverty, with a majority of them being women living in rural and urban remote areas. Despite the lack of infrastructure, economic opportunities, education, self-development, and maternal healthcare, women play a crucial role in supporting their households.
108knots is empowering these economically and socially vulnerable women by providing a range of support, including trainings, market access for their handmade products, and leadership training. The initiative aims to help these women become economically independent and able to support their families from home.
Pramila is a post-graduate in textile and industrial design from India’s first design school, National Institute of Design, NID (2011) She has extensively work experience in the areas such as the apparel industry, home furnishing, handmade artisanal crafts and academics. Some of her recent works centres around craft-based skill & product development, system design, livelihood generation through craft practices, sustainable artisanal hand woven product design, initiatives related to slow consumption, slow fashion, human-centre design and co-design. She enjoys working with various communities, India Textiles and crafts; believes in and practices Sustainable Design.
Women on the Edge: Refashioning and Self-fashioning, Laura Knight and Cornwall
The artist Laura Knight lived in Cornwall from 1907 to 1919 attracted by the landscape and art community in Newlyn and Lamorna. This paper argues that Cornwall’s artistic community and position on the periphery, at a distance from but connected to the London art world, gave her the social, emotional, and imaginative space to transform her art. This depended on a new and nuanced understanding of modern womanhood, including her own subjectivity as a female artist, much of which was achieved through the representation and performance of dress. Dress, fabric, and fashion were integral to Knight’s experience growing up in Nottingham with its Lace industry. She was a skilled dressmaker stitching costumes for Newlyn theatricals, her own clothes and, on occasion, dresses for her models.
Drawing on the art historian Sophie Hatchwell’s work on performance and spectatorship, literary theorist Alison Light’s notion of conservation modernity, and James Hyman’s association of ‘modern realist’ style with the human condition, the paper focuses on the pictures of young women standing or sitting on the coastline that Knight painted from 2014-17 – her friends, several were themselves artists. Three factors stand out: their youthful contemporary appearance, which anticipates the modern woman of the 1920s; their gaze, which is directed inwards or away from the viewer; and their liminal location and, sometimes precarious, position balanced between land and sea. Explorations of female modernity from a female point of view, these works speak to Knight’s 1913 ‘Self-portrait with nude’ (1913) where, dressed in her black fedora-style hat and ‘Cornish red’ coat with gaze averted, she performs her own artistic persona while painting her close friend the artist and enameller Ella Naper, who is depicted both as image/reproduction and ‘person’ with her short hair and air of quiet refusal as she stands with her back to the viewer.
Fiona Hackney is Professor Fashion Cultures at Manchester Metropolitan University, UK. Her research focuses on twentieth century print media and magazines, modernity, dress, sustainability, heritage, crafts, and social design, and she is currently looking at the work of women artists in Cornwall. Recent publications include the co-edited collection: Women’s Periodicals and Print Culture in Britain, 1918-1939: The Interwar Period (2018) and her monograph Women’s Magazines and the Feminine Imagination: Opening-Up a New World for Women in Interwar Britain will be published by Bloomsbury in 2024.
Fashion Fictions: visions of re-localised fashion cultures
Amy Twigger Holroyd
Fashion Fictions: visions of re-localised fashion cultures
The mainstream globalised fashion industry is deeply implicated in the abuse of people working in garment supply chains and of earth’s life-supporting systems. Industry-led initiatives that promise to address these problems are incremental and inadequate; fundamental change is required to develop fashion systems that work within the means of the planet. Yet the potential for transformation is limited by a collective inability to contemplate alternatives to the status quo.
An international participatory research project, Fashion Fictions, responds to this challenge by bringing people together to generate, experience and reflect on engaging fictional visions of alternative fashion cultures and systems. Its participatory process for collective speculation, which is informed by work in speculative design, experiential futures and collective imagination, has a three-stage structure. At Stage 1, contributors submit concise written outlines of worlds in which invented historical junctures have led to familiar-yet-strange sustainable cultures and systems. At Stage 2, participants create visual and material prototypes to represent these worlds, while at Stage 3, practices and events from the fictional fashion systems are collectively enacted.
This paper will draw on the 180+ fictions generated at Stage 1 by contributors around the world, along with data generated at four Stage 2 prototyping workshops and four Stage 3 enactments which took place in Nottingham between November 2021 and August 2022. Across this extensive body of data, a widespread interest in devolved fashion can be observed. There is scant interest in the epicentres of fashion that dominate the real-world system. Instead, common themes include dreams of DIY, local and small-scale production, often driven by restrictions to imports and exports, and locally distinctive fashion cultures. The paper will discuss these common themes and blind spots, sharing specific examples and considering the implications of this speculative interest in re-localised fashion cultures for real-world change.
Dr Amy Twigger Holroyd is Associate Professor of Fashion and Sustainability at Nottingham School of Art & Design, Nottingham Trent University. Her current project, Fashion Fictions, is supported by an AHRC Research Development and Engagement Fellowship. She has edited and authored several books, including Folk Fashion: Understanding Homemade Clothes (I.B. Tauris, 2017) and Historical Perspectives on Sustainable Fashion: Inspiration for Change with Jennifer Farley Gordon and Colleen Hill (Bloomsbury Academic, 2023).
Crochet for All; Crochet for Everything: Discovering local supply chains in Goa
An intergenerational domestic craft practised by women at home and utilised primarily for domestic consumption, crochet from the state of Goa remains fairly invisibilised in a folk craft-intense country such as India. This could be largely attributed to the origins of the craft (tracing it down to the Portuguese lineage) or the private spaces where it is practised that are discreetly secluded from public realms.
Further, the circulation of the resultant crocheted artefacts never leaves this private sphere, being passed on from new brides to neighbours to relatives to friends & acquaintances, so much so that crochet remains unknown to a lot of people in Goa itself and finds little representation in any of the formalised market spaces across the region. In its lifetime, the crochet gets produced, gifted, given, decorated, upcycled, contained, stored and discarded, while lingering within these domestic spheres. Additionally, a different landscape has been created by younger makers, as opposed to traditional makers (with an average age of 55), as an influence of the global resurgence in crochet and hand-knitting within the hobby crafts sector.
The proposed paper is an enquiry into discovering these channels within which the crocheted artefact finds itself and gathers meaning. In charting and mapping these threads of circulation, the research asks how these women sell or make a living from crochet in a setup where there is no formal body or infrastructure to lean on. Contained within the small region of Goa, the craft has created new geographies and new local supply chains of production and consumption. Underpinned by theories of gender, making and spaces of production (Arantes, 2020; Bailey, 2015; Blunt & Varley, 2015; Parker, 2010),
and through undertaking ethnographic fieldwork and conducting semi-structured interviews with the makers, the paper also seeks to document these novel entrepreneurial methods and initiatives, through which women are using crochet as a means of empowering themselves and their skill, going beyond the stereotype of a leisurely pursuit.
Arantes, L. M. (2020). Unraveling Knitting: Form Creation, Relationality, and the Temporality of Materials. Journal of American Folklore, 133(528), 193-204.
Bailey, R. (2015). Crafting Stories in the Domestic Archive. The Journal of Modern Craft, 8(1), 29-46.
Blunt, A., & Varley, A. (2004). Geographies of home. Cultural geographies, 11(1), 3-6.
Parker, R. (2010). The subversive stitch: Embroidery and the making of the feminine.
Pragya works as an independent designer and researcher, based out of New Delhi. For the last five and a half years, she was engaged as an Assistant Professor in the Fashion Design department at the Indian Institute of Art and Design (IIAD) in New Delhi. Her research practice involves tracing the provenance of
domestic crafts in her home country and recently has been working in the state of Goa in India with the crochet community of makers, recording oral testimonies, studying preserved crochet textiles and tracing the craft’s Portuguese heritage. Over the years she has written, presented and published papers at various domestic and international conferences, workshops and symposia on themes ranging from design history, zero-waste design, design pedagogy, Indian crafts and textiles. Alongside, she runs her own small studio practice called ‘Unpurl’, where she works with home-based makers, designing and working with hand- knitting and crochet.
Website: www.pragyasharma.com | www.unpurl.com
Creating a fashion for Muslim brides: A study on tailoring practices in Calicut, Kerala
The paper reports on a study which explores the role played by tailors in providing a sartorial aesthetics for Muslim brides in the city of Calicut and its suburbs. It could be surmised from the literature on clothing practices in Calicut, the mutual borrowings between high-end fashion and vernacular styles are significant to the constitution and reconstitution of styles and identity in the city. Being a constantly renovated area, bridal fashion is a location where desires for traditional as well as emerging identities of a bride and her community are indexed. The paper devices the concepts of modesty and urbanity to explore the significance of these qualities as relational virtues for a bride, and the percolation of these traits into the bridal couture. Through in-depth interviews with eight tailors from the city, the study documents the prescriptions followed and techniques employed by these tailors while making bridal dress from unstitched materials and while modifying stitched materials for the brides. The study considers tailors who provide service at their homes and local shops as well those who work with branded designers and boutiques in the region. Along with exploring the aesthetics forged by these tailors as symbols of modesty and urbanity, the study captures how their interpretations of Islamic prescriptions and local conventions get translated in the process of prescribing fabrics, colours, embellishments and cuts for the bridal attire. Along with the several historical and socio-economic peculiarities of this city, also known as the ‘Muslim capital of Kerala’, one can vividly observe caste-based and legacy-based hierarchies among its Muslim population. The study proposes the need for an alternative ontology for discussing the sartorial practices of Muslim women, without subscribing to totalising categories for Muslim women based on religious and regional identities and narratives on oppression.
Athira B.K. (email@example.com) is a Research Scholar at Centre for the Study of Social Systems, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. Her M.Phil dissertation was based on the theme bridehood and bodily practices in the Indian Sub-continent. She is currently working on the Bridal Beauty Practices among Mappila Muslims of Kerala. Her interests include: Gender and Sexuality, Material Culture and Social inclusion studies.
“I may be a little dandified for suburbia” – How online shopping and online communities are decentering menswear
Fashion capitals such as London, New York and Paris are cities that sit at the top of the urban cultural hierarchy, with fashion playing a key role in their post-industrial economies (Berry, 2012; Breward & Gilbert, 2006; Zukin, 1998). Second-tier fashion cities compete to reap the benefits accorded to these fashion capitals, and both types of city have been profoundly transformed by concerted efforts to turn urban areas into consumption spaces where consumption, both material and symbolic, takes place (Harvey, 1989). The creation of virtual consumption space with the rise of online shopping over the past two decades means that one no longer has to travel to a fashion city to buy stylish clothing. Adjacent to this phenomenon has been the proliferation of online communities for the discussion of clothing consumption. Just as online shops have decentered fashion consumption, these online communities have decentered fashion media, allowing a dispersed body of users to circumvent the trend-driven corporate fashion media and discuss the clothing that matters to them.
This paper looks at how online communities for the discussion of menswear are decentering men’s fashion. Reporting the results of an online ethnography of six online communities and in-depth interviews with fifty men who belong to them, it discusses how online communities have facilitated the decentering of menswear consumption. It reports how men in provincial cities, small towns and suburban areas across Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom are now able to access fashionable looks without having to travel to fashion cities. It goes on to address how men post photographs of their outfits to these online communities, arguing that this replacement of urban space with virtual space as a site for displaying one’s fashionable looks works to devolve fashion to places hitherto thought of as incompatible with urban fashionability.
Nathaniel Weiner is a Senior Lecturer in Cultural Studies at Central Saint Martins (University of the Arts London), where he co-ordinates Cultural Studies for the Fashion, Fashion Communication, Jewellery and Textiles programmes. He holds a PhD in Communication & Culture from York University and Ryerson University’s joint program. His research interests include consumption, digital cultures, masculinity, menswear and style subcultures. He has published in The European Journal of Cultural Studies, The International Journal of Fashion Studies, Men and Masculinities and Punk and Post-Punk.
Andrew Groves, Danielle Sprecher, Jo Jenkinson, Paul Owen
Locating Menswear – a non-hierarchical exploration of place and community.
Locating Menswear is an AHRC-funded network established in 2022 with the objective of bringing together academics, curators, designers, retailers, fashion industry professionals and local stakeholders to investigate the connections, relationships, and interactions between the local, national, and international menswear industries and communities.
The network is framed by the concerns of the Westminster Menswear Archive (WMA), a unique teaching collection held by the University of Westminster that takes a non-hierarchical approach to collecting menswear and includes designer fashion, streetwear, everyday dress, sportswear, workwear, and uniforms. It aims to overcome the gender and high-fashion biases inherent in the majority of fashion museum collections and fashion education.
Menswear remains understudied in fashion research in comparison to womenswear, with scholarship on British menswear focusing on narratives of tailoring and tradition; the dandy and the spectacular; and London. This network seeks to challenge these preoccupations by interrogating the fashion practices of the inhabitants of four key locations. The network’s innovative approach is designed to engage with previously overlooked menswear communities and creators, collaborating with non-academic participants and practitioners, including those outside the fashion industry. The networks activities are contextualised by a series of menswear exhibitions that are occurring concurrently with the workshops, Fashioning Masculinities in London, Art of the Terraces in Liverpool and Dandy Style in Manchester but seeks to attract unexpected menswear audiences and surface the unheard and unseen.
This paper will discuss the non-hierarchical methodology developed by the WMA and how it has been employed to investigate regional communities centred on menswear. It will provide a summary of initial findings from the network’s first three workshops held in London, Liverpool, and Manchester, as well as an examination of some of the challenges associated with engaging hidden menswear communities that are sceptical and resistant to engaging with fashion academics.
Andrew Groves is Professor of Fashion Design at the University of Westminster, and the director of the Westminster Menswear Archive, which he founded in 2016. It houses over 2,000 examples of some of the most significant menswear garments from the last 250 years, including designer fashion, streetwear, everyday dress, sportswear, workwear, and uniforms. He is the Principal Investigator of the AHRC-funded Locating Menswear network.
Dr Danielle Sprecher is the curator of the Westminster Menswear Archive at the University of Westminster, London. She is a historian whose research focuses on the history of British menswear and men’s fashion, exploring the industry from design to production and final consumption. As a curator, she has worked with several historical dress collections across the United Kingdom. In 2019, Sprecher co-curated Invisible Men: An Anthology from the Westminster Menswear Archive.
Dr Jo Jenkinson is a Reader in Fashion, and Deputy Head at the Manchester Fashion Institute, Manchester Metropolitan University. Her research explores dress, music, youth and gender, through creative participatory methods. She is co-founder of the Portrait Youth project which uses the language of dress and styling to enable diverse groups of young people to articulate their narratives of youth and is Co-Investigator of the Locating Menswear network.
Paul Owen is a practice based researcher at Liverpool John Moores University. His projects, “The Fashion of Counter Culture (menswear 1977-2002)” and “Solezine (British Trainer Culture” have a focus on working class men and their interest in vintage sportswear labels and in particular sports footwear, documenting how their obsessions, style and dress codes evolved and informed a subculture, starting with the birthplace of Terrace Casual phenomena: Liverpool
“I liked this lippy so much I wore it up a Munroe” (Poucher, cited in Street-Porter, 2000, date unknown)
Industrial chemist William Poucher’s 1923 book ‘Perfumes and Cosmetics: With Especial Reference to Synthetics’ became the standard point of reference for the twentieth century beauty industry. The complete works were diverse in content and included a dictionary of raw materials and aromatics in addition to instructions on synthesising the natural essences of perfumes.
Poucher’s dictionary of raw materials included “useful reference information” (Jouhar 1991, vi) aswell as a history of the compounds. Since the 19th century achievements of chemical synthesis had made great advances and Poucher’s explanations of the principles of production processes, chemical compounds, and formulae contributed to the “Olfaction Revolution” (Tillotson 1991, 21). The dictionary provided data about raw materials in a formalised structure whilst inadvertently revealing the connections between raw materials and colonial networks which helped to advance Poucher’s career and the flourishing industry. Poucher is popularly known for his hillwalking guidebooks, landscape photography and unconventional commitment to his work. Rumoured to have tested his products durability by wearing make-up and perfume while walking in the mountains, he presented a contradictory ‘centred’ (traditional) and ‘de-centred’ (radical) cultural identity, influencing beauty standards.
The intention of this paper is to describe the ways in which Poucher’s dictionary of raw materials and chemical synthetics reduced the cultural identification of the materials and their geographical sources coding them with a them and “us’ hierarchy. W.A. Poucher’s work as a perfumer-cosmetician reveals the power dynamics within the twentieth century cosmetic industry and it’s far-reaching implications as to how we still determine material and immaterial cultural codes in beauty and fashion.
Jouhar, A. J, ed. 1991. Poucher’s Perfumes, Cosmetics and Soaps – Volume 1. The Raw Materials of Perfumery. 9th edition. London: Chapman & Hall.
Street-Porter, J. 2000. The unsung hero of the Yardley soap opera. The Independent 30 April 2000: 24.
Tillotson, J. 1991. PhD thesis, Interactive olfactory surfaces: The Wellness Collection: a science fashion story. London: Royal College of Art.
Claire Anderson is a textile designer, researcher and educator. A graduate of Central Saint Martin’s MA Material Futures, her practice and teaching is underpinned by
responsible and futures thinking design approaches. Claire has worked commercially across different design disciplines including fashion, interiors and CMF.
Claire Anderson, Graduate Diploma in Textile Design Course Leader, Chelsea College of Arts.
Denim jeans and the power of ‘micro trends’
Using research drawn from a high street garment archive housed in Nottingham Trent University’s (NTU) School of Art and Design, this presentation will provide insights into how the fast fashion trend has evolved, and evidence that trends do re-emerge frequently. This unique archive is called FashionMap, and spans the period from 2000-2018. The archive contains over 2000 garments and accessories, which have been sourced from the central shopping area in Nottingham, by fashion students at NTU.
Specifically, this presentation will focus on denim within the FashionMap archive. Denim has a global presence, it exists in every country in the world, and in many of these it has become the most popular form of everyday attire (Miller & Woodward, 2007). Denim has a multi-generational appeal, jeans are worn across the world by the fashionable and un-fashionable, and by those who want to stand out and conform (Crewe, 2008). Redefinitions of what it is to be fashionable will explore how the cyclical nature of fashion means that some items become unsustainable due to their design – as time passes, they become outdated and ‘un-cool,’ as dictated by fashion trends.
Identity expressed through fashion balances on a fine line between the individual being able to belong to their social group and fit in, yet also wanting to stand out, communicating individuality (Woodward, 2008). Simmel (1957) argues that this tension is a core dynamic of being human, and central to changes in fashion trends. By wearing denim jeans, which are a ubiquitous item of clothing (Miller & Woodward, 2007), individuals are able to become part of the ‘invisible majority’ (Woodward, 2008, p. 68). This presentation will explore how a slight deviation from this majority and conformity can cause distaste and disgust if it is not an intentional effort on behalf of the consumer to ‘stand out.’
Rose Marroncelli graduated from Nottingham Trent University in 2016 with a BA (Hons) in Fashion Management, and in 2018 with an MA in Culture, Style and Fashion.
In 2019, Rose progressed onto a PhD at NTU, titled, The Emotional Durability of Fast Fashion: A Gendered Analysis. This PhD is expected to complete in 2023.
Rose is currently a Lecturer in the Fashion Department at NTU, teaching on MA International Fashion Management.
Crewe, L. (2008). Ugly beautiful? Counting the cost of the global fashion industry. Geography, 93(1), 25–33. https://doi.org/10.1080/00167487.2008.12094216
Miller, D., & Woodward, S. (2007). Manifesto for a study of denim. Social Anthropology, 15(3), 335–351. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0964-0282.2007.00024.x
Simmel, G. (1957). Fashion. American Journal of Sociology, 62(6), 541–558. https://about.jstor.org/terms
Woodward, S. (2008). Standing Out as One of The Crowd. In L. Salazar (Ed.), Fashion V Sport (pp. 66–77). V&A Publishing .
Shirley Mclauchlan, Niki Taylor and Collette Paterson
The potential for growing communities and fostering change, through the growing, harvesting and processing of flax
Our presentation focuses on the de-centring of practices and material exploration by exploring the potential for connection between plant-based, small plot and farm-grown materials, with their processing towards textile materials and how this connects with place and people.
We seek to explain our approach towards engaging with the growing, harvesting and processing of flax using long established and already refined methods, tools and mechanisms, to provide currency and structure to a transparent, ethical, considered and regenerative textile design outcome and process. We seek to outline how this simple but incredibly invaluable fibre can provide the foundation and framework for conversation, community and change.
We will present the methods we have been undertaking to explore, understand and share the benefits of flax, sharing the evolving communities and engagement that have evolved over this period, as well as sharing the connections that this material has brought between local farms, fibre, fabric and fashion. The centring of people, place and planet forms the heart of the research.
Shirley, Niki and Collette currently work collaboratively on ‘Seed-Ed’, a project to harness the growing, harvesting and processing of flax to instigate textiles, material awareness, collaboration, community and change. https://www.instagram.com/_seed_ed/
Shirley Mclauchlan is a Lecturer in Textiles at Edinburgh College of Art and has expertise in sustainability approaches within textiles, with a particular focus on harnessing design for longevity in textiles and applications of mending. Shirley also has broad experience across the textile design sector, including working with various community groups to share practice and sustainable approaches towards making and mending.
Niki Taylor MBE (for services towards the promotion of net zero apparel in Scotland) is a Teaching Fellow in Textiles at Edinburgh College of Art and has expertise as the founder of Fashion Revolution Scotland, with more than 10 years’ experience of campaigning for change and sustainable and regenerative approaches to be adopted in fashion and textiles in Scotland.
Collette Paterson is the Programme Director for Textiles at Edinburgh College of Art and has expertise in textile and fashion education and textile design aligned to the textiles industries in both the UK and China. Her current research lies in regenerative fibres and materials centred on the design and importance of mono (single fibre) materials, with a particular focus on flax and woven textiles.